What is helicobacterosis?
Helicobacterosis is a slow infection leading to diseases, such as chronic gastritis, gastroduodenitis, duodenal bulb ulcer, an stomach ulcer. Helicobacterosis is always associated with gastric mucosa inflammation.
What is the cause of helicobacterosis?
Helicobacterosis is caused by Helicobacter pylori microorganisms. In 1994 International Agency of Cancer Research classified H. pylori as a Group I carcinogen (i.e., its cancerogenic effect on humans has been proved).
What is Helicobacter pylori?
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium of a winding or spiral shape dwelling under the mucus that covers the gastric wall.
How long has Helicobacter pylori been known?
Despite the long-standing high prevalence of gastritis and gastric ulcer, it is only in 1983 that Australian researchers B. Marshall and P. Warren discovered that these conditions are almost always associated with the presence of H. pylori in the organism. By now, specialists believe that, in most cases, this microorganism is associated with the development of a number of gastrointestinal diseases.
Who may acquire helicobacterosis?
This may happen to anybody. Studies of H. pylori for two decades have shown that this organisms is widely spread world over. This may happen to anybody. Studies of H. pylori for two decades have shown that this organisms is widely spread world over.
How does infection with H. pylori occur?
H. pylori is transmitted from human to human, for example, by using shared ware or by violating of hygienic norms. The risk of infecting is high when many people live under tight conditions. Usually, the infection is transmitted within families or other groups of tightly intercommunicating subjects.
What tests allow detecting of H. pylori?
Blood is tested for antibodies against H. pylori. However, in cases of recently occurred infection or recent treatment, this test may give erroneous results. Fiber gastroduodenoscopy provides for the visual examination of the mucous walls of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a special apparatus (endoscope), which is introduced into the gastrointestinal tract via the oral cavity. A tissue sample (autopsy sample) taken with the help of such endoscope is examined by microscopy or using the HelPyl-test. Microscopy makes it possible to observe H. pylori cells, and the HelPyl-test confirms their presence by color change, which occurs in three minutes. Biochemical testing of exhaled air is carried out before and after the patient under examination has ingested a preparation of carbamide. H. pylori decomposes carbamide and changes the composition of the exhaled air. A combination of the above methods will increase the accuracy of testing for H. pylori.
Who should be tested for H. pylori?
Tests for H. pylori should be performed in the following cases: